Changes in the heart

  • Increased stroke volume
  • increased contractibility
  • Lower resting heart rate
  • improved venous return
  • Hypertrophy of the left ventricle
  • Increased ejection fraction (% of blood leaving heart, max during exercise is 80-95%)
  • Increased hemoglobin concentration
  • Increased red blood cell production
  • increase total blood volume

 Changes in Skeletal muscle

  • Increase in myoglobin
  • increase in the percentage of capillaries (greater spider web)
  • increase in mitochondria
  • increase in aerobic enzyme activity (faster chemical reactions)
  • Increase in glycogen storage

Strength Training

  • Increase in strength (based on 1RM)
  • Increase in endurance (the number of times you can lift 80% of your 1RM)
  • Increase in muscle fiber hypertrophy
  • increase in physical appearance and self image
  • increase in bone mineral density (decrease risk for osteoporosis)
  • Increase in posture and coordination, agility
  • Maintain lean tissue while losing weight
  • Decrease sarcopenia (loss of muscle tissue)

Exercise as Medicine

  • Of the 7 primary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, exercise decreases five of them
  • Diabetes (insulin sensitivity), obesity, sedentary lifestyle, increased cholesterol and high blood pressure
  • The only ones are not smoking and heredity factors before age 55
  • Exercise improves cognitive function and influences brain concentration of serotonin and dopamine – depression
  • Low cardiovascular fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality and is of comparable importance as diabetes and other CVD risk factors

Weight Loss

  • one pound= 3500 calories
  • One gram of carbs = 4 calories
  • One gram of protein¬† = 4 calories
  • One gram of fat = 9 calories
  • Sustained weight loss is equal to 1.5-1 pound weekly loss
  • To lose one pound a week, you need a caloric deficit of 500 calories a day

Why People Get Fat

  • Carbohydrates – muscle and liver glycogen
  • Protein – tissue repair/structure building
  • Extra calories are stored as fat
  • Myth: metabolic rate goes up with increased muscle tissue
  • You burn 5 calories per liter of oxygen consumed
  • ACSM Position statement in 2009: 150-200 minutes of moderate intensity to prevent weight gain
  • More than 250 minutes a week is needed for significant weight loss
  • People who averaged more than or equal to 200 minutes a week lost more weight than those who averaged less than 150 minutes a week
  • People gain weight when they decrease their physical activity
  • Weigh bearing exercises increase muscle mass and required minimal skill level
  • Treadmill increases metabolic cost compared to running outside
  • strength training and cardio have been shown o decrease percentage of body fat
  • supervised exercise leads to greater results
  • lifestyle intervention leads to greater results
  • Fat burns on the flame of carbohydrate